From the Blog


Here is a list of the typical real estate disputes that Los Angeles Real Estate lawyer Jennifer Gardner has litigated throughout her career:

  1. problems between individual owners and homeowners associations
  2. neighbor conflicts (these often escalate and can become violent)
  3. real estate fraud (usually between home buyers, sellers and brokers, and often involving a failure to disclose)
  4. nuisance (interference with use and enjoyment of property)
  5. resulting trust (where one person pays to purchase the property but the deed is in someone else’s name)
  6. partition (where you ask the court to sell a property and divide the proceeds between co-owners)
  7. specific performance (forcing performance of a contractual obligation – ex., “Sell me the property like you promised!”)
  8. quiet title (disputes over who is entitled to “legal” ownership – ex. “Why am I not on the deed?!”)
  9. adverse possession (where by operation of law you acquire property over time even though title is not in your name)
  10. encroachments, including structures, trees and shrubbery and landscaping (trees and roots and property damage)
  11. boundary line fencing issues
  12. land use and zoning issues
  13. building code violations
  14. boundary line disputes and easements (where does my property begin and yours end, and rights to access and use)
  15. commercial lease disputes between landlords and tenants,
  16. title disputes and profit sharing disputes between co-owners and partners,
  17. breach of contract and fiduciary duty,
  18. residential lease disputes (landlord-tenant) and more.

As you can see from this list, real estate disputes often encompass many different types of legal issues.  They can involve conflicts concerning the location of boundary lines, construction defects, encroachments (i.e., trees, landscaping and fences and sometimes entire structures) and more.  They also can arise where a purchaser fails to pay, requiring the trust deed holder to file a judicial or non-judicial foreclosure action to foreclose on the property.

Legal issues often arise when individuals enter into creative financing arrangements to purchase property. Problems occur when they don’t nail down the terms of their agreements adequately before acquiring the property.  This is a frequent cause of protracted litigation.  Often experts (surveyors, appraisers, economic experts, arborists) are required to be hired so that the parties have enough information to be able to resolve their issues.

Another common scenario:  non-married persons acquiring property together.  When the relationship sours, even if it’s not a romantic relationship, it’s common for disputes and questions to arise concerning who owes and owns how much.  Commonly co-owners don’t agree on when to sell a property, or one owner may contend that the other has breached the contract.  Or, one person can pay all the funds, yet not be on title, which can lead to a claim for resulting trust.

When parties and even family members can’t agree on when or whether to sell their real property, Jennifer Gardner has litigated partition disputes to force the sale and have the proceeds divided.  These lawsuits are often filed  by former romantic partners, siblings, and friends, and can also involve allegations of breach of contract, resulting trust and fraud.

Jennifer Gardner handles partnership disputes and dissolutions of every kind – whether between family members, former usually unmarried domestic partners, business partners, members of Limited Liability Companies, and even shareholders vying for control.

More About Typical Real Disputes Handled By Los Angeles Real Estate Attorney Jennifer Gardner….


Los Angeles County and the numerous cities that comprise it (i.e., The City of Culver City, The City of Beverly Hills, The City of West Hollywood, Pasadena, and the like) have municipal codes which govern how land owners can use land owned within their borders.  The three main types of districts (“zones”) that are established in a municipality are residential, commercial and industrial zones.

Cities have elaborate restrictions and rules establishing what types of buildings can be built or permitted, the size/height/location of the structures, the number of rooms within the building(s), and more.  Problems arise when an owner uses land in a way that violates the municipal codes.  For example, your neighbor’s fence could violate the Building & Safety Code if it is outside of the height restrictions.  This can create a nuisance for neighbors and jeopardize the public safety.  Sometimes owners can even face criminal charges when they allegedly fail to comply with the City’s regulations and building and safety codes.


Landlord-tenant disputes can include who is responsible for property repairs, issues of rent, tenant rights, rules on entry and upkeep, and more.  Nuisance is a very big issue these days — especially during the pandemic when many people work from home.  Jennifer Gardner has concentrated on representing clients in commercial lease disputes.

If a lease is not thoroughly understood or is unclear when signed, misunderstandings frequently lead to disputes.   A commercial landlord’s failure to provide services required by a lease can lead to business disputes with a tenant claiming lost profits from interference with business in addition to breach of the lease.

In rent controlled cities, such as The City of West Hollywood, an extra layer of statutory provisions govern the rights and remedies of residential landlords and tenants – often but not always to the tenant’s advantage.

If you are experiencing any of these problems, contact Jennifer B. Gardner to discuss your matter with her and find out what to do to protect your legal rights.  Email her at, or schedule a consultation here.